Reproduction of Articles or Excerpts of Copyrighted Works at Request of Users

Because there is a practical need for students and researchers to maintain personal copies of such materials, section 108(d) permits a library or archive to copy, at the request of a user, “no more than one article or other contribution to a copyrighted collection or periodical issue, or … a small part of any other copyright work,” if two conditions are satisfied:

  1. The copy becomes the property of the user, and the library or archives have no reason to believe that the copy would be used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship, or research; and
  2. The library or archives display prominently, at the place where orders are accepted, and include on their order forms, a warning of copyright in accordance with requirements from the Register of Copyrights.

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