Amount and Substantiality of the Portion Used in Relation to the Copyrighted Work as a Whole

Although there are no numerical or percentage limits, the larger the amount of a work one uses, the less likely it will be fair use. This deliberate flexibility in the statute allows each situation to be judged on its specific facts and allows the doctrine to be practical in the higher education setting. This factor also takes into consideration the quality of the portion taken as well as the quantity. Sometimes, even if only a small amount is taken, this factor may weigh against fair use if the portion can be justly characterized as “the heart of the matter.” It is not difficult to see how this factor and the fourth factor, market effect, work in tandem. The more of the original taken, in amount and substantiality, the greater the negative impact on the market for the copyrighted work.

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